What is Cutting?
Cutting is a technique where the operator moves a material (workpiece) such as metal and the tool in relation to each other in order to shape the workpiece into the desired form through shaving, drilling, etc.
Cutting Precision Factors
When an object is subjected to a force, the shape attempts to change while also generating a force to resist this change. This property is called stiffness. For machine tools, the stiffness is the key to successful machining with the desired accuracy. While today’s machine tools are capable of progressively meeting stiffness requirements, in cases where micron-order precision is necessary, operators need a deeper understanding of stiffness.
Stiffness can be categorized into two types, static stiffness and dynamic stiffness. Static stiffness, explained as simply as possible, is stiffness when the direction and magnitude of the force are constant. With machine tools, the moving part is not moving on the table.Strictly speaking, the table is deformed by the weight of the moving part. While the actual impact is extremely small, in some cases the machining precision may decrease.
On the other hand, dynamic stiffness is stiffness when the direction and magnitude of the force varies. For example, vibration occurs when turning on the machine tool, which may cause some machine tools to chatter or otherwise vibrate in a way that affects the machining precision. When cutting or machining workpieces in any other way, both static and dynamic stiffness are key factors to consider.
(2) Thermal deformation
Objects expand with increases in temperature. Metals are no exception to this law, and to accurately measure length, the measuring room must be completely temperature-regulated.
In machining, operators need to take particular care to prevent thermal deformation in workpieces. This is because machine tool components generate heat when the machine tool is in operation, increasing the temperature of the workpieces being cut. Thermal deformation becomes a greater consideration as the machine tool continues to operate. Therefore, it is important to know the temperatures at different points of an operation in order to ensure precision machining.
Two Methods of Cutting
Rolling: Tool Turns Turning: Workpeices Turns
(A: Tool B: Workpieces)
Cutting is a technique where the operator moves a material (workpiece) such as metal and the tool in relation to each other in order to shape the workpiece into the desired form through shaving, drilling, etc. Cutting can be broadly divided into two methods: rolling, where the workpiece is restrained while the tools turn, and turning, where the workpiece is turned instead.
(The content of the article comes from: https://www.keyence.com/ss/products/measure-sys/machining/)